3 main types of childhood cancer

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Keeping Kids Healthy

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 10,000 children younger than 15 years old in the United States are diagnosed with various kinds of cancer each year.

Last week, we discussed what cancer is and how it begins when microscopic cells that make up a normal body part start growing out of control.

This week, we discuss some of the different types of childhood cancer.

Leukemias are the most common, accounting for about one-third of all childhood cancers.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from white blood cells, which normally help fight infection.

Leukemia generally begins in the bone marrow where blood cells are formed, but eventually the cancerous cells are released out into the bloodstream, so there is no distinct tumor. Continue reading

There’s hope for sickle cell

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

While sickle cell disease has long been studied, a recent discovery revealed that the disease significantly increases the levels of a molecule called sphingosine-1-phosphate, or S1P, which is generated by an enzyme called sphingosine kinase 1.

Inhibiting this SphK1 enzyme was found to reduce the severity of sickle cell disease in mice, which will hopefully lead to new drugs that target SphK1 in order to treat sickle cell disease in humans.

Sickle cell disease is caused by a change in the gene that is responsible for a type of hemoglobin, the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen. This tiny change results in hemoglobin clumping together, changing the shape of red blood cells.

The name for sickle cell disease actually comes from misshapen red blood cells. Rather than being shaped like a disk, or a doughnut without a whole, sickle cells are shaped like a crescent, sort of bending over on themselves in a process called sickling. Continue reading

7 steps to improving empathy

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Last week, we discussed the topic of empathy, how it is different from compassion and how essential empathy is to human relationships.

This matters not only in health care but in families, in business, in friendships.

Based on research from Harvard’s teaching hospital by Dr. Helen Riess and her research coordinator, Gordon Draft-Todd, the following is a an acronym published in the journal Academic Medicine, August 2014. I hope you find it helpful.

The E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. approach to better communication and connection:

E. Eye Contact. This is so essential to connection and engagement, and even the neurobiology of relation, that we need to attend to it. Be aware that some cultures find prolonged eye contact intrusive, seductive or even rude. As a physician, it seems harder to maintain good eye contact throughout an encounter because of the ever-present electronic record which requires us to document, review results, write orders, refills, write work or jury excuses, etc. Early, late, and as often as possible, eye contact is what I recommend to my students and colleagues despite the intrusion of the electronic environment and a busy clinic schedule with short office visits. Also, I recommend patients shut off their phones during visits as the precious time we have can be interrupted by frequent calls and texts. Continue reading

Domestic violence is not just an NFL problem

Dr. Jeff Temple

Dr. Jeff Temple

After an initially weak response by the NFL and victim-blaming by the Baltimore Ravens, pro football player Ray Rice was finally dropped from his team for knocking his wife (then fiancée) unconscious. It has been more than 100 days since the incident, and he was cut loose by his team only after a video clearly showed him knocking her out.

The video of Rice dragging his victim’s body out of the elevator wasn’t enough to warrant this punishment. Apparently, NFL officials needed to see the punch. Some, including Rice, argued that he acted in defense. The Ravens tweeted, “Janay Rice says she deeply regrets the role that she played the night of the incident.”

Sound familiar? That’s because women in abusive relationships have heard this all before

“Why did you marry him?”; “Why do you stay?”; “What did you do to make him so angry?”

And rarely do women in violent relationships have a video to document what happened to them.

While violence perpetrated by pro athletes may demand disproportionate attention, we must be careful not to forget that domestic violence is a very real problem that affects our sisters, daughters, mothers, colleagues and neighbors. Continue reading

Agavin offers more choices to those watching caloric, sugar intake

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Next time you have a bitter pill to swallow, think about reaching for a spoonful of agavin instead of sugar to help the medicine go down.

You might not know what agavin is yet, but you’ve probably noticed that a number of alternative natural sweeteners like Stevia have been added to grocery store shelves next to traditional sugar.

These products sweeten foods but often do not add calories or raise blood sugar levels. Recent research suggests that a sweetener made from agave, the same plant used to make tequila, may lower blood sugar levels and help people maintain a healthy weight.

Agavin is a natural form of sugar, fructose, called fructan. With fructan, individual sugar molecules are linked together in long chains.

The human body cannot use this form of fructose so it is a non-digestible dietary fiber that does not contribute to blood sugar levels. But it can still add sweetness to foods and drinks. Continue reading

Childhood cancer is random mistake in DNA instructions

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Keeping Kids Healthy

The word cancer certainly strikes a scary and emotional note in our hearts, and when attached to the word childhood, it can be especially frightening.

However, as with many things we fear, we can be empowered by understanding. This week, we explain just exactly what cancer really is.

Every part of the body — the brain, liver, heart, bones, fingernails, muscles and so on — is made up of hundreds of millions of microscopic cells that are specialized for that particular organ.

These cells follow a very complex and highly organized instruction set from their DNA to multiply, grow and eventually die and become replaced throughout our entire lifetimes.

Occasionally, however, the instruction set becomes damaged as it is copied into newly formed cells. Usually our bodies can recognize cells with damaged DNA and repairs or destroys them. Continue reading

Empathy is a vital skill for health industry

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Editor’s note: This the first in a series.
Empathy is the ability to detect, understand, and relate to another’s emotions. It is the basis of deep interpersonal relationships, including therapeutic relationships such as between a healer and a client or patient. Much of empathy is a nonverbal process.

Empathy is different from compassion. Compassion is a positive trait embraced by all major faith traditions. Compassion literally means “to suffer together.” It is defined as the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another’s suffering and the feeling you have motivating you to relieve that suffering. Continue reading

Prevent birth defects with a healthy diet

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Keeping Kids Healthy

Pregnancy is a time in which nutrition is very important for the health of both mother and baby.

Women who are pregnant are encouraged to eat healthy diets with a variety of food groups. A recent study in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found that mothers who ate higher quality diets had fewer babies with spina bifida and cleft lip or palate.

This study shows the importance of eating a varied high quality diet. Pregnancy is also a time in which certain vitamins are particularly important to promote a baby’s growth and development.

Continue reading

Reading an easy way to shape a better life

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Dr. Victor Sierpina

I have always been an incessant reader. Throughout my life, the world has entered my mind and experience through words.

New places and persons, extraordinary ideas, philosophies, faiths, art and all the panoply of what is available through literature has been instantly available to me though books and magazines.

It is even more so now through electronic sources. As a kid, summer vacations occasioned biweekly trips to the Phoenix Public Library where I would check out the maximum allowable 10 books.

Biographies of famous people like Thomas Edison, outdoorsmen like Kit Carson and Teddy Roosevelt served to inspire and keep me busy during hot summer days. Novels, nonfiction and hobby themes abounded as well in my reading lists. Continue reading

Thirdhand smoke is dangerous, too

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Science has long proved that smoking is bad for you and those around you, with 90 percent of lung cancer cases caused by smoking.

Even secondhand smoke is dangerous enough to warrant banning smoking in public places. The idea of thirdhand smoke premiered in 2009, and scientific evidence shows that it, too, can harm human health.

Thirdhand smoke is the many toxic compounds from tobacco smoke that settle onto surfaces (particularly fabrics) such as carpet, furniture and the inside of a car. Researchers have identified chemicals in thirdhand cigarette smoke called NNA and NNK that can bind to DNA, a person’s genetic information, and cause damage and mutations that could lead to cancer. Continue reading