Smoking combined with your DNA increase lung cancer risk

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Smoking isn’t the only thing that raises your risk of lung cancer. As it turns out, your DNA can have that effect too.

A scientific study scanned the genomes, the entire genetic code, of 11,000 people of European descent in an effort to identify if there was any correlation between gene sequences and a common form of lung cancer, non-small cell carcinoma. They discovered that variants of certain genes increase a person’s susceptibility to developing lung cancer, especially in smokers.

One of the three gene variants they identified, named BRCA2, can double a smoker’s chance for developing lung cancer. BRCA2 is a tumor suppressor gene. It encodes a protein involved in the repair of damaged DNA, which is critical to ensure the stability of cell’s genetic material. When cellular DNA is damaged, there are several ways for the body to detect and repair that damage. If the damage to DNA cannot be repaired, then the cell is programmed to die by a process called apoptosis in order to prevent the damage being passed on to its daughter cells. Continue reading

Taking a much closer look at metastasis

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

One of the things that make cancer cells so deadly is metastasis, their ability to dislodge from their original location and migrate to other tissues. Most people who die of cancer are victims of this process. Even if a tumor is removed surgically, doctors can’t be certain that some of the tumor cells haven’t already metastasized, hence the need for treatments such as chemotherapy to target those cells. Unsurprisingly, metastasis is a subject of intense research and luckily scientists now have a new tool to help them understand how tumor cells move.

While most tumors have the ability to metastasize to many different tissues, they prefer to spread to certain ones, like those in the bones, liver and lungs. Cancer begins to spread by invading nearby tissue, then through a process called intravasation, tumor cells enter a blood or lymphatic vessel, allowing them to circulate to other parts of the body. Continue reading

Can measles save us from cancer?

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Today, the words “measles,” “mumps” and “rubella” sound foreign to children.But before a vaccine prevented these three viruses, 3 million to 4 million American children contracted measles, a possibly serious respiratory disease that can lead to pneumonia, and 40 percent of them required hospitalization each year.

The vaccine is 95 percent effective, and in 2012 only 55 cases of measles were reported in the U.S., mostly due to traveling abroad. Now, a study has demonstrated that the measles virus might actually be a useful treatment — for cancer. It sounds strange — using one serious disease to fight off another — but scientists have found a way to direct the cell-killing powers of viruses to cancer cells.The use of viruses to destroy cancer cells, called oncolytic virotherapy, has been investigated since the 1950s. Other viruses such as herpes and pox have also been used as treatments for other diseases, but the measles virus’s potential to fight cancer is very promising.

The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., utilized a modified measles virus called MV-NIS. To create this version of the virus, scientists inserted a gene for the protein sodium iodide symporter. This protein helps concentrate iodine in the human thyroid. Therefore, when this genetically engineered measles virus infects tumor cells and replicates, it produces this protein that binds to and concentrates iodine. Continue reading

More bad news for smokers

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Smoking isn’t the only thing that raises your risk of lung cancer. As it turns out, your DNA can have that effect too.
A scientific study scanned the genomes, the entire genetic code, of 11,000 people of European descent in an effort to identify if there was any correlation between gene sequences and a common form of lung cancer, non-small cell carcinoma. They discovered that variants of certain genes increase a person’s susceptibility to developing lung cancer, especially in smokers.

One of the three gene variants they identified, named BRCA2, can double a smoker’s chance for developing lung cancer. BRCA2 is a tumor suppressor gene. It encodes a protein involved in the repair of damaged DNA, which is critical to ensure the stability of cell’s genetic material.

When cellular DNA is damaged, there are several ways for the body to detect and repair that damage. If the damage to DNA cannot be repaired, then the cell is programmed to die by a process called apoptosis in order to prevent the damage being passed on to its daughter cells. Continue reading

There are various treatment options for childhood cancers

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Keeping Kids Healthy

September is Childhood Cancer Awareness month.

During the last two weeks, we’ve discussed what cancer is and some of the common types of childhood cancers.

This week, we discuss the various treatment options, how they work and some of the side effects.

Doctors have three main treatment strategies to treat cancer: surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

Depending on the type of cancer and how much it has spread, the overall treatment may combine several of the different kinds of therapy.

We’ve found it useful to explain cancer treatment with an analogy many people can easily relate to — fighting weeds in your yard.

When you discover a small cluster of weeds in the middle of your yard, you can probably successfully get rid of them by digging around the offending patch and pulling them out by the roots. Continue reading

Childhood cancer is random mistake in DNA instructions

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Drs. Sally Robinson & Keith Bly

Keeping Kids Healthy

The word cancer certainly strikes a scary and emotional note in our hearts, and when attached to the word childhood, it can be especially frightening.

However, as with many things we fear, we can be empowered by understanding. This week, we explain just exactly what cancer really is.

Every part of the body — the brain, liver, heart, bones, fingernails, muscles and so on — is made up of hundreds of millions of microscopic cells that are specialized for that particular organ.

These cells follow a very complex and highly organized instruction set from their DNA to multiply, grow and eventually die and become replaced throughout our entire lifetimes.

Occasionally, however, the instruction set becomes damaged as it is copied into newly formed cells. Usually our bodies can recognize cells with damaged DNA and repairs or destroys them. Continue reading

Thirdhand smoke is dangerous, too

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Science has long proved that smoking is bad for you and those around you, with 90 percent of lung cancer cases caused by smoking.

Even secondhand smoke is dangerous enough to warrant banning smoking in public places. The idea of thirdhand smoke premiered in 2009, and scientific evidence shows that it, too, can harm human health.

Thirdhand smoke is the many toxic compounds from tobacco smoke that settle onto surfaces (particularly fabrics) such as carpet, furniture and the inside of a car. Researchers have identified chemicals in thirdhand cigarette smoke called NNA and NNK that can bind to DNA, a person’s genetic information, and cause damage and mutations that could lead to cancer. Continue reading

Legal for medical research: Marijuana is beneficial for cancer patients

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Dr. Victor Sierpina

Rocky Mountain high. Imagine my surprise when I returned to visit the tiny mountain hamlet in Colorado where I was in solo practice as the country doc for nearly a decade back in the 1980s and ’90s and discovered a new clinic on main street.

The town is in a mountain valley situated at 7,500 feet above sea level. So, the new clinic was appropriately and whimsically called The High Valley Cannabis Center.

Medical marijuana had come to a town long known for its aging hippies and artists who were no strangers to its usage. Many not only inhaled weed in the ’60s, but I suspect a number had never exhaled.

As more states, now numbering around 15, approve marijuana as legal for medical, or even recreational, use, as recently occurred in Colorado, we come inevitably to the question of is this a good idea for sick people or is it a social folly? Continue reading

Cancer Goggles

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Cutting people open and sewing them back up for a living is a pretty stressful occupation to begin with, but some surgeons have tougher jobs than others. Cancer surgeons are charged with removing all tumor cells on the first try. But tumor growth can be irregular, and it can be hard to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells during an operation. Imaging techniques like MRIs and CT scans can give surgeons a road map to the tumor, but they offer only limited help once an incision has been made.

This is because these images are merely snapshots — a single frame and dimension. Even three-dimensional images can only be viewed one frame at a time. In addition, the inside of the body is dynamic and it takes a skilled surgeon to understand the orientation of tissues and the precise margins where tumor tissue ends and regular tissue begins.

Because of this challenge, surgeons often have to remove healthy tissue to be sure all tumor cells are gone. This requires a special step: staining the removed tissue then looking at it under a microscope to identify the cells. The surgeon wants to be sure a margin of healthy tissue is removed so no tumor cells remain. Continue reading

Pancreatic Tumor Marker

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Drs. Norbert Herzog & David Niesel

Medical Discovery News

Pancreatic cancer is the most deadly form of cancer. Each year, 45,000 Americans are diagnosed with it and every year 40,000 people (90 percent) die from it. One reason most people don’t survive pancreatic cancer is most of the pain and symptoms don’t appear until the cancer has progressed and treatment comes too late. Even then, pancreatic cancer is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. Another reason is that there is not an easy, reliable test for pancreatic cancer — until now.

The pancreas is a small, oblong, flat organ at the back of abdomen between the stomach and the spine. It is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels by producing hormones such as insulin. The pancreas also produces enzymes for the digestive system that neutralize stomach acid and help break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

While there aren’t many noticeable symptoms at first, as pancreatic cancer advances it can cause abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, fatigue and jaundice (when the skin, eyes and mucus turn yellow). Since these symptoms are rather generic, even once someone starts experiencing them it is hard to tell the difference between pancreatic cancer and something benign, like gallstones or bile duct stones. While doctors normally use imaging techniques and endoscopies to distinguish between the two, scientists have identified a new marker that can be used to accurately diagnose a pancreatic tumor.

Continue reading