The famous artist Michelangelo once received a visit from a friend as he worked diligently on a sculpture. After a brief chat, the friend left but returned later to find Michelangelo working on the same statue. Thinking the statue was nearly completed on his last visit and seeing no visible change, he exclaimed, “You haven’t been working all this time on that same statue, have you?”
“Indeed I have,” the sculptor replied. “I’ve been retouching the facial features, refining the leg muscles, polishing the torso; I’ve softened the presentation of some areas and enhanced the eye’s expression.”
“But all those things are insignificant,” responded the visitor. “They are mere trifles.”
“That may be,” replied Michelangelo, “but trifles make perfection, and perfection is no trifle.”
Even today, painter, sculptor, architect and poet Michelangelo is still widely regarded as the most famous artist of the Italian Renaissance. Among his works are the “David” and “Pieta” statues and the Sistine Chapel frescoes. His work demonstrated a blend of psychological insight, physical realism and intensity never before seen.
The moral of the story? People and organizations who pay attention to the “little things” produce excellence in larger matters. As American entrepreneur, businessman and founder of the Marriott Corporation J. Willard Marriot said, “It’s the little things that make the big things possible. Only close attention to the fine details of any operation makes the operation first class.”
UTMB’s Best Care initiative is composed of many “moving parts”. There are a number of focused efforts in each area in which we are working to make significant improvements: reducing our observed mortality rate, improving effectiveness (doing or using the right things to achieve the desired patient outcome and best experience of care) and increasing efficiency (doing or using the right things to achieve the desired patient outcome and best experience of care). There is a tremendous amount of work in progress, and I am truly excited about the collaboration and teamwork taking place to make Best Care a reality.
Many of you are a part of the teams conducting this focused work, but everyone in every role at UTMB Health contributes to making our organization the best place to receive care and to have an excellent patient experience. I know you are all dedicated to this endeavor and have a desire to stay informed of our progress and the projects underway. That’s why this week, I would like to give you an update on some of the work that is taking place, as well as the work that will be conducted in the time to come.
Reducing UTMB’s Mortality Rate
At UTMB, all patient deaths are reviewed within 48 hours of the event, as generated in the Epic electronic medical record (EMR). Each death is then classified based on how likely the patient’s death was to occur—some patient’s illnesses are severe and they were expected to pass away, while other patients who passed away were not expected to. This is why detailed and specific clinical documentation is important when it comes to predicting mortality, because it illustrates how sick our patients are and it helps identify any additional illnesses or complications that may make care delivery more complicated. To aid in this documentation effort, an enhancement known as a “smart phrase” will be made in the EMR is forthcoming.
Another way we have improved our mortality rate—and more importantly, improved end-of-life situations for patients and their families—is to consult with patients and their families when the patient is expected to pass about moving into hospice care. This helps give them a choice about how to spend their last days and honors the patients’ preferences. So far, we have been able to transition 14 patients into comfortable end-of-life care. These efforts will continue and remain ongoing in the future.
Diagnosing, Treating and Preventing Sepsis
Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality. It is a bloodstream infection that results in tissue damage and organ failure. Sometimes patients arrive in the hospital with sepsis; at other times, they can develop it after a surgery (if this occurs, it is considered a patient safety event).
Recent work to improve our performance in this measure has focused largely on placing a workflow in the electronic medical record (EMR) to help providers follow the evidence-based care recommended for testing and treatment of sepsis. A report has also been developed to help monitor all patients with sepsis on their problem list—this helps ensure that if sepsis is initially documented as “suspected” or “probable”, it is eventually also documented as “confirmed” or “ruled out” and the final diagnosis is clearly documented.
Clinical documentation guidelines for the diagnosis, documentation and coding of sepsis and septic shock have now been posted to the Best Care website, and clinical documentation specialists and inpatient coders continue working closely with physicians on this area for improvement.
Clinical Documentation Improvement
After physicians document the care they provide in the medical record, it is later translated into codes which are used not only to determine the cost of care and reimbursements, but to help illustrate how sick patients are and to track disease trends. The documentation/coding process is fairly technical and detailed, but one important factor is to identify not only the primary diagnosis, but also identify and document any complications or co-morbidities (aka, secondary, co-existing illnesses). It is also important to note whether or not the secondary illness was considered “major” (meaning it required more resources to treat and was at the highest level of severity) or “simple” (meaning the condition resulted in some increased resources, but at a much lower rate).
When ICD-10 was implemented in October 2015, it changed how some conditions and procedures were classified. That is one reason why specificity of clinical documentation was strongly emphasized. However, it was predicted that on a national level, some services that are considered “procedural-heavy”, like general surgery, general medicine and cardiac services would be more susceptible to the impact of this shift than other areas of care.
At UTMB, clinical documentation improvement is focused in all services, but project teams are also particularly focused on Cardiology. To help providers make the best possible diagnosis choices, Department Chair Dr. Ken Fujise has requested that a template be developed for use in the EMR, and this work is in progress.
Effectiveness and Efficiency
Building on work already accomplished, Orthopaedics continues work to reduce patient length of stay and preventable 30-day readmissions through revised order sets (order sets are standardized lists of orders for specific diagnoses that help physicians follow evidence-based guidelines for care), conducting risk assessment for patients (that is, understanding what might put a patient at risk for readmission), and improved patient education and physical therapy training. Sometimes, a patient may need advanced care after a surgery, such as a knee replacement, but their condition isn’t serious enough to actually be admitted. By placing them in observation instead, which is a less expensive care environment, a 30-day readmission can be avoided.
Other areas of focus that are helping to improve the data for our readmission rate overall is ensuring that elective surgeries are clearly distinguished from non-elective surgeries and that inpatient procedures are accurately coded as planned or unplanned.
Last but not least, throughout the inpatient arena, patient care teams continue conducting progression of care rounds and using the “8 Ps” (an assessment of preventable risk factors for readmission). Teams also continue conducting and documenting “Teach Back”, which helps ensure that patients understand their condition and how to care for themselves at home. Care managers remain focused on following up with patients after they are discharged to ensure they are following their plan of care. Particular attention is being given to caring for hospital-dependent patients.
“Success is the sum of small efforts – repeated day in and day out.”
As you can see, there is a lot of work going on! Although I mentioned a couple of weeks ago that we slipped in our rankings in the most recent Vizient Quality & Accountability Study, all of the amazing work I described above was not included in the data submitted for that study’s time period. Therefore, I am confident that if we continue these efforts and maintain a steadfast focus on Best Care, including maintaining our performance in patient-centeredness and equity of care, we will be successful in our endeavor to become a top 20 academic medical center in the next study.
Thank you all for your diligence and hard work! And remember, it’s the things we work hard for that have the greatest worth. We have a tremendous opportunity to prove that UTMB Health is the best place to receive patient care!
Quote attributed to Robert Collier